Academic Papers

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Cryptographic Voting Bibliography (Home)

This is a list for journal, conference, and workshop articles on voting technology and cryptographic voting. This is bibliography is editable by anyone, without registration. Please contribute!


IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Oakland)

An Epistemic Approach to Coercion-Resistance for Electronic Voting Protocols. R. Küsters and T. Truderung.

Financial Cryptography

Coercion Resistant End-to-end Voting. Ryan Gardner, Sujata Garera, and Aviel D. Rubin.


Journal of Network and Computer Applications

  • A secure and anonymous voter-controlled election scheme. Thomas E. Carroll and Daniel Grosu.

IEEE Security and Privacy Magazine (May/June)

  • A Three-Ballot-Based Secure Electronic Voting System. Altair O. Santin, Regivaldo G. Costa, and Carlos A. Maziero.
  • The Dynamics of Counting and Recounting Votes. Alec Yasinsac, and Matt Bishop.
  • Evaluating Electronic Voting Systems Equipped with Voter-Verified Paper Records. Nirwan Ansari, Pitipatana Sakarindr, Ehsan Haghani, Chao Zhang, Aridaman K. Jain, and Yun Q. Shi.
  • Scantegrity: End-to-End Voter-Verifiable Optical-Scan Voting. David Chaum, Aleks Essex, Richard Carback, Jeremy Clark, Stefan Popoveniuc, Alan Sherman, and Poorvi Vora.
  • An Optical Scan E-Voting System based on N-Version Programming. Iñaki Goirizelaia, Ted Selker, Maider Huarte, and Juanjo Unzilla.

IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy (Oakland)

  • Civitas: Toward a Secure Voting System. Michael R. Clarkson, Stephen Chong, and Andrew C. Myers.

USENIX Security Symposium

  • Helios: Web-based Open-Audit Voting. Ben Adida.
  • VoteBox: A Tamper-evident, Verifiable Electronic Voting System. Daniel Sandler, Kyle Derr, and Dan S. Wallach.

Network & Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS)

  • Robust Receipt-Free Election System with Ballot Secrecy and Verifiability. Sherman S.M. Chow, Joseph K. Liu, and Duncan S. Wong.

Electronic Voting Technology Workshop (EVT)

  • On Auditing Elections When Precincts Have Different Sizes. Javed A. Aslam, Raluca A. Popa, and Ronald L. Rivest.
  • Replayable Voting Machine Audit Logs. Arel Cordero and David Wagner.
  • In Defense of Pseudorandom Sample Selection. Joseph A. Calandrino, J. Alex Halderman, and Edward W. Felten.
  • You Go to Elections with the Voting System You Have: Stop-Gap Mitigations for Deployed Voting Systems. J. Alex Halderman, Eric Rescorla, Hovav Shacham, and David Wagner.
  • Administrative and Public Verifiability: Can We Have Both? Josh Benaloh.
  • The Case for Networked Remote Voting Precincts. Daniel R. Sandler and Dan S. Wallach.
  • Pre-Election Testing and Post-Election Audit of Optical Scan Voting Terminal Memory Cards. Seda Davtyan, Sotiris Kentros, Aggelos Kiayias, Laurent Michel, Nicolas Nicolaou, Alexander Russell, Andrew See, Narasimha Shashidhar, and Alexander A. Shvartsman.
  • Improving the Security, Transparency, and Efficiency of California's 1% Manual Tally Procedures. Joseph Lorenzo Hall.
  • Comparing the Auditability of Optical Scan, Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) and Video (VVVAT) Ballot Systems. Stephen N. Goggin, Michael D. Byrne, Juan E. Gilbert, Gregory Rogers, and Jerome McClendon.
  • Modeling and Analysis of Procedural Security in (e)Voting: The Trentino's Approach and Experiences. Komminist Weldemariam and Adolfo Villafiorita.
  • Security Evaluation of ES&S Voting Machines and Election Management System. Adam Aviv, Pavol Cerný, Sandy Clark, Eric Cronin, Gaurav Shah, Micah Sherr, and Matt Blaze.
  • Systemic Issues in the Hart InterCivic and Premier Voting Systems: Reflections on Project EVEREST. Kevin Butler, William Enck, Harri Hursti, Stephen McLaughlin, Patrick Traynor, and Patrick McDaniel.
  • Analysis, Improvement, and Simplification of Prêt à Voter with Paillier Encryption. Zhe Xia, Steve A. Schneider, James Heather, and Jacques Traoré.
  • Scantegrity II: End-to-End Verifiability for Optical Scan Election Systems using Invisible Ink Confirmation Codes. David Chaum, Richard Carback, Jeremy Clark, Aleksander Essex, Stefan Popoveniuc, Ronald L. Rivest, Peter Y.A. Ryan, Emily Shen, and Alan T. Sherman.
  • Coercion-Resistant Tallying for STV Voting. Vanessa Teague, Kim Ramchen, and Lee Naish.

Workshop on Trustworthy Elections (WOTE)

  • Information-theoretically secure voting without an honest majority. Anne Broadbent and Alain Tapp.
  • Aperio: High Integrity Elections for Developing Countries. Aleks Essex, Jeremy Clark, and Carlisle Adams.
  • Seat Distributions: From Electoral Law via Logic to Code. Ronny Wichers Schreur, and Bart Jacobs.
  • Coercion-Resistant tallying for STV voting. Vanessa Teague, Kim Ramchen, and Lee Naish.
  • A framework for secure electronic voting. Stefan Popoveniuc and Poorvi Vora.
  • Administrative and Public Verifiability: Can We Have Both? Josh Benaloh.
  • Real World Experiences with Bingo Voting and a Comparison of Usability. Michael Bär, Christian Henrich, Joern Mueller-Quade, Stefan Röhrich, and Carmen Stüber.
  • A Commitment-Consistent Proof of a Shuffle. Douglas Wikström.
  • Safe use of a touchscreen interface in Prêt-à-Voter. David Lundin and P. Y. A. Ryan.

European Symposium on Research in Computer Security (ESORICS)

  • Human readable paper verification of Prêt à Voter. David Lundin and Peter Y. A. Ryan.

Provable Security (ProvSec)

  • A Tamper-Evident Voting Machine Resistant to Covert Channels. Han Wei, Hao Tao, Zheng Dong, Chen Ke-fei, and Chen Xiaofeng.

Conference on Current Trends in Theory and Practice of Computer Science (SOFSEM)

  • Short ballot assumption and threeballot voting protocol. Jacek Cichoń, Mirosław Kutyłowski, and Bogdan Węglorz.

International Symposium on Software Testing and Analysis (ISSTA)

  • Are Your Votes Really Counted? Testing the Security of Real-world Electronic Voting Systems. Davide Balzarotti, Greg Banks, Marco Cova, Viktoria Felmetsger, Richard Kemmerer, William Robertson, Fredrik Valeur, and Giovanni Vigna.

International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA)

  • A Survey on Cryptography Algorithms in Security of Voting System Approaches. Majid Javid Moayed, Abdul Azim Abdul Ghani, and Ramlan Mahmod.

International Journal of Electronic Governance

  • New multi-channel voting scheme: towards remote e-voting over the internet. Victor Morales-Rocha, Miguel Soriano, Rafael Martinez-Pelaez, and Francisco J. Rico.


  • Voting Schemes. Berry Schoenmakers.
  • A Simple E-Voting Protocol. F Connes.
  • Verifying privacy-type properties of electronic voting protocols. Stephanie Delaune, Steve Kremer, Mark Ryan.
  • Scratch, Click & Vote: E2E voting over the Internet. Miros≈Çaw Miroslaw Kutylowski and Filip Zagorski.


Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS)

  • Split-ballot voting: everlasting privacy with distributed trust. Tal Moran and Moni Naor
  • An independent audit framework for software dependent voting systems. Sujata Garera and Aviel D. Rubin.

Network & Distributed System Security Symposium (NDSS)

  • Cryptographic Methods for Storing Ballots on a Voting Machine. John Bethencourt, Dan Boneh, and Brent Waters.

Theory of Cryptography Conference (TCC)

  • How To Shuffle in Public. Ben Adida and Douglas Wikström

Electronic Voting Technology Workshop (EVT)

  • Studying the Nedap/Groenendaal ES3B Voting Computer: A Computer Security Perspective. Rop Gonggrijp and Willem-Jan Hengeveld.
  • Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting Machine. Ariel J. Feldman, J. Alex Halderman, and Edward W. Felten.
  • An Analysis of the Hart Intercivic DAU eSlate. Elliot Proebstel, Sean Riddle, Francis Hsu, Justin Cummins, Freddie Oakley, Tom Stanionis, and Matt Bishop.
  • Casting Votes in the Auditorium. Daniel Sandler and Dan S. Wallach.
  • Extending Prerendered-Interface Voting Software to Support Accessibility and Other Ballot Features. Ka-Ping Yee.
  • Verification-Centric Realization of Electronic Vote Counting. Joseph R. Kiniry, Dermot Cochran, and Patrick E. Tierney.
  • Contractual Barriers to Transparency in Electronic Voting. Joseph Lorenzo Hall.
  • On Estimating the Size and Confidence of a Statistical Audit. Javed A. Aslam, Raluca A. Popa, and Ronald L. Rivest.
  • Machine-Assisted Election Auditing. Joseph A. Calandrino, J. Alex Halderman, and Edward W. Felten.
  • An Examination of the Auditability of Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) Ballots. Stephen N. Goggin and Michael D. Byrne.
  • On the Difficulty of Validating Voting Machine Software with Software. Ryan Gardner, Sujata Garera, and Aviel D. Rubin.
  • GEMS Tabulation Database Design Issues in Relation to Voting Systems Certification Standards. Thomas P. Ryan and Candice Hoke.
  • An Authentication and Ballot Layout Attack Against an Optical Scan Voting Terminal. Aggelos Kiayias, Laurent Michel, Alexander Russell, Narasimha Sashidar, Andrew See, and Alexander A. Shvartsman.
  • Ballot Casting Assurance via Voter-Initiated Poll Station Auditing. Josh Benaloh.
  • Bare-Handed Electronic Voting with Pre-processing. Ben Riva and Amnon Ta-Shma.
  • Three Voting Protocols: ThreeBallot, VAV, and Twin. Ronald L. Rivest and Warren D. Smith.

Workshop on Trustworthy Elections (WOTE)

  • Bare-Handed Electronic Voting with Pre-processing. Ben Riva and Amnon Ta-Shma.
  • Component Based Electronic Voting Systems. David Lundin.
  • Split-Ballot Voting: Everlasting Privacy With Distributed Trust. Tal Moran and Moni Naor.
  • Punchscan with Independent Ballot Sheets: Simplifying Ballot Printing and Distribution with Independently Selected Ballot Halves. Richard T. Carback III, Stefan Popoveniuc, Alan T. Sherman, and David Chaum.
  • Punchscan in Practice: An E2E Election Case Study. Aleks Essex, Jeremy Clark, Rick Carback, and Stefan Popoveniuc.
  • Prêt à Voter: All-In-One. Z. Xia, S. Schneider, J. Heather, P. Ryan, D. Lundin, R. Peel, and P. Howard.
  • A Verifiable Voting Protocol based on Farnel. Roberto Araújo, Ricardo Felipe Custódio, and Jeroen van de Graaf.
  • On the Security of Ballot Receipts in E2E Voting Systems. Jeremy Clark, Aleks Essex, and Carlisle Adams.
  • Robust Coercion-Resistant Registration for Remote E-voting. Taisya Krivoruchko.
  • Undervote and Pattern Voting: Vulnerability and a mitigation technique. Stefan Popoveniuc and Jonathan Stanton.
  • Vote Verification using CAPTCHA-like Primitives. Rahul Simha and Poorvi L. Vora.
  • Process Is Technology: Coming to Terms with Systems-Level Problems and Human-Factors Failures with Voting. Edwin J. Selker.

Annual Computer Security Applications Conference (ACSAC)

  • Tampering with Special Purpose Trusted Computing Devices: A Case Study in Optical Scan E-Voting. Aggelos Kiayias, Laurent Michel, Alexander Russel, Narasimha Sashidar, and Andrew See.

International Workshop on Security (IWSEC)

Verifiable Internet Voting Solving Secure Platform Problem. Miroslaw Kutylowski and Filip Zagorski.

IEEE Computer Security Foundations Symposium (CSF)

  • Implementing STV securely in Prêt à Voter. James Heather.

Workshop on Recent Advances on Intrusion-Tolerant Systems (WRAITS)

  • An Intrusion-Tolerant e-Voting Client System. André Zúquete, Carlos Costa, and Miguel Romão.

IEEE International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES)

  • Availability and Performance of the Adaptive Voting Replication Protocol. Johannes Osrael, Lorenz Froihofer, and Karl M. Goeschka.
  • Requirements and Evaluation Procedures for eVoting. Melanie Volkamer, and Margaret McGaley.
  • Towards Secure E-Elections in Turkey: Requirements and Principles.

Orhan Cetinkaya, and Deniz Cetinkaya.

  • On Coercion-Resistant Electronic Elections with Linear Work. Stefan Weber, Roberto Araujo, and Johannes Buchmann.

IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE)

  • Secure and Observable Auditing of Electronic Voting Systems using Stock Indices. Jeremy Clark, Aleks Essex, and Carlisle Adams.


  • Verifable Shuffle of Large Size Ciphertexts. Jens Groth, Steve Lu. 2007
  • A Coercion-Resistant Internet Voting Protocol. Bo Meng. 2007
  • A Practical Verifiable e-Voting Protocol for Large Scale Elections over a Network. Orhan Cetinkaya, Ali Doganaksoy. 2007
  • Merging pret-a-voter and punchscan. J van de Graaf. 2007


  • Pret a Voter with Re-encryption Mixes. Peter Y A Ryan, Steve Schneider.
  • Polling with Physical Envelopes: A Rigorous Analysis of a Human-Centric Protocol. Tal Moran, Moni Naor.
  • Simple Verifiable Elections. Josh Benaloh.
  • A framework and taxonomy for comparison of electronic voting schemes. K Sampigethaya, Radha Poovendran.
  • Ballot Casting Assurance. Ben Adida, C Andrew Neff.
  • Receipt-Free Universally-Verifiable Voting with Everlasting Privacy. Tal Moran, Moni Naor.


  • Simple and Efficient Shuffling with Provable Correctness and ZK Privacy. Kun Peng, Colin Boyd, Ed Dawson.
  • Cryptographic Voting Protocols: A Systems Perspective. Chris Karlof, Naveen Sastry, David Wagner.
  • Analysis of an Electronic Voting Protocol in the Applied Pi Calculus. Steve Kremer, Mark Ryan.
  • Non-interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Voting. Jens Groth.
  • Coercion-Resistant Electronic Elections. Ari Juels, Dario Catalano, Markus Jakobsson.
  • RIES: An Internet Voting in Action. Engelbert Hubbers, Bart Jacobs, Wolter Pieters.
  • Cryptography meets voting. Warren D Smith.
  • A Practical Voter-Verifiable Election Scheme. David Chaum, Peter YA Ryan, Steve Schneider.
  • New cryptographic election protocol with best-known theoretical properties. Warren D Smith.
  • A Varient of the Chaum voter-verifiable Scheme. Peter Y A Ryan.


  • Universal Re-encryption for Mixnets. Philippe Golle, Markus Jakobsson, Ari Juels, Paul Syverson.
  • Evaluating Security of Voting Schemes in the Universal Composability Framework. Jens Groth.
  • Verifiable Mixing (Shuffling) of ElGamal Pairs. C Andrew Neff.
  • Receipt-Free Homomorphic Elections and Write-in Voter Verifed Ballots. Alessandro Acquisti.
  • Practical High Certainty Intent Verifcation for Encrypted Votes. C Andrew Neff.
  • Dining Cryptographers Revisited. Philippe Golle, Ari Juels.
  • Efficient, Verifiable Shuffle Decryption and Its Requirement of Unlinkability. Jun Furukawa.


  • Providing Receipt-freeness in Mixnet-based Voting Protocols. Byoungcheon Lee, Colin Boyd, Ed Dawson, Kwangjo Kim, Jeongmo Yang, Seungjae Yoo.
  • Election Confidence: A Comparison of Methodologies and their Relative Effectiveness at Acheiving It. C Andrew Neff.
  • Rapid Mixing and Security of Chaum's Visual Electronic Voting. Marcin Gomulkiewicz, Marek Klonowski, Miroslaw Kutylowski.
  • A Verifable Secret Shuffle of Homomorphic Encryptions. Jens Groth.
  • The Vector-Ballot E-Voting Approach. Aggelos Kiayias, Moti Yung.


  • The Theory and Implementation of an Electronic Voting System. Ivan Damgard, Jens Groth, Gorm Salomonsen.
  • Principles and requirements for a secure e-voting system. Dimitiris A Gritzalis.
  • Optimistic Mixing for Exit-Polls. Philippe Golle, Sheng Zhong, Dan Boneh, Markus Jakobsson, Ari Juels.
  • Receipt-Free Electronic Voting Scheme with a Tamper-Resistant Randomizer. Byoungcheon Lee, Kwangjo Kim.
  • A Verifiable Multi-Authority Secret Election Allowing Abstention from Voting. Wen-Shenq Juang, Chin-Laung Lei, Horng-Twu Liaw.
  • Self-tallying Elections and Perfect Ballot Secrecy. Aggelos Kiayias, Moti Yung.
  • Making Mix Nets Robust For Electronic Voting By Randomized Partial Checking. Markus Jakobsson, Ari Juels, Ronald L Rivest.
  • E-voting without 'Cryptography'. Dahlia Malkhi, Ofer Margo, Elan Pavlov.
  • The Business of Electronic Voting. Ed Gerck, C Andrew NeÔ¨Ä, Ronald L Rivest, Aviel D Rubin, Moti Yung.


  • Remarks on Mix-Network Based on Permutation Networks. Masayuki Abe, Fumitaka Hoshino.
  • A Verifiable Secret Shuffle and its Application to E-Voting. C Andrew Neff.
  • "A Modular Voting Architecture (‚ÄúFrogs"")". Shuki Bruck, David Jefferson, Ronald L Rivest.
  • Receipt-freeness in Large-scale Elections without Untappable Channels. Emmanouil Magkos, Mike Burmester, Vassilis Chrissikopoulos.
  • Practical Multi-Candidate Election System. Olivier Baudron, Pierre-Alain Fouque, David Pointcheval, Jacques Stern, Guillaume Poupard.
  • An Efficient Scheme for Proving a Shuffle. Jun Furukawa, Kazue Sako.


  • Efficient Receipt-Free Voting Based on Homomorphic Encryption. Martin Hirt, Kazue Sako.


  • A Simple Publicly Verifable Secret Sharing Scheme and its Application to Electronic Voting . Berry Schoenmakers.
  • An Improvement on a Practical Secret Voting Scheme. Miyako Ohkubo, Fumiaki Miura, Masayuki Abe, Atsushi Fujioka, Tatsuaki Okamoto.
  • Towards a Practical, Secure, and Very Large Scale Online Election. Jared Karro, Jie Wang.


  • A Practical Mix. Markus Jakobsson.
  • Universally Verifiable Mix-net with Verification Work Independent of the Number of Mix-servers. Masayuki Abe.


  • Sensus: A Security-Conscious Electronic Polling System for the Internet. Lorrie Faith Cranor, Ron K Cytron.
  • A Secure and Optimally Efficient Multi- Authority Election Scheme. Ronald Cramer, Rosario Gennaro, Berry Schoenmakers.
  • A secure electronic voting protocol with IC cards. Jinn-Ke Jan, Chih-Chang Tai
  • Secure Electronic Voting Over the World Wide Web. Mark A Herschberg.
  • Receipt-Free Electronic Voting Schemes for Large Scale Elections. Tatsuaki Okamoto.
  • Fault Tolerant Anonymous Channel. Wakaha Ogata, Karou Kurosawa, Kazue Sako, Kazunori Takatani.


  • Designated Verifier Proofs and Their Applications. Markus Jakobsson, Kazue Sako, Russell Impagliazzo.
  • Multi-Authority Secret-Ballot Elections with Linear Work. Ronald Cramer, Matthew Franklin, Berry Schoenmakers, Moti Yung.


  • Receipt-Free Mix-Type Voting Scheme-A practical solution to the implementation of a voting booth. Kazue Sako, Joe Kilian.


  • Breaking an Efficient Anonymous Channel. Birgit Pfitzmann.
  • Secret-Ballot Receipts: True Voter-Verifable Elections. David Chaum.
  • Receipt-Free Secret-Ballot Elections. Josh Benaloh, Dwight Tuinstral.
  • Secure Voting Using Partially Compatible Homomorphisms. Kazue Sako, Joe Kilian.
  • A Practical Electronic Voting Protocol using Threshold Schemes. Ahmad Baraani Dastjerdi, Josef Pieprzyk, Reihaneh Safavi-Naini.


  • Efficient Anonymous Channel and All/Nothing Election Scheme. Choonsik Park, Kazutomo Itoh, Kaoru Kurosawa.


  • A Practical Secret Voting Scheme for Large Scale Elections. Atsushi Fujioka, Tatsuaki Okamoto, Kazuo Ohta.


  • A Cryptographic Scheme for Computerized General Elections. Kenneth R Iverson.


  • A New Multiple Key Cipher and an Improved Voting Scheme. Colin Boyd.


  • Elections with Unconditionally-Secret Ballots and Disruption Equivalent to Breaking RSA. David Chaum.
  • Untraceable Electronic Cash. David Chaum, Amos Fiat, Moni Naor.
  • The Dining Cryptographers Problem. David Chaum.


  • Verifiable Secret-Ballot Elections. Josh Benaloh.


  • Distributing the Power of a Government to Enhance the Privacy of Voters. Josh Benaloh and Moti Yung.


  • A Robust and Verifiable Cryptographically Secure Election Scheme. Josh Benaloh and Michael J Fischer.


  • Protocols for Secure Computations. Andrew C Yao.
  • Cryptographic Protocols. Richard A DeMillo. Nancy A Lynch. and Michael J Merritt.


  • Untraceable Electronic Mail. Return Addresses. and Digital Pseudonyms. David Chaum.